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Medieval monasteries on the West Black Sea coast

Author(s) : Popkonstantinov Kazimir , Kostova Rossina (9/18/2008)

For citation: Popkonstantinov Kazimir , Kostova Rossina, "Medieval monasteries on the West Black Sea coast", 2008,
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Black Sea
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=10647>

Medieval monasteries on the West Black Sea coast (9/2/2011 v.1) Μεσαιωνικά μοναστήρια στα δυτικά παράλια του Εύξεινου Πόντου - has not been published yet 



anta or pilaster, the
A shallow rectagular feature projecting from a wall, having a capital and a base and architecturally treated as a column.

An arched srtucture or a semi-circular end of a wall. In byzantine architecture it means the semicircular, usually barrel-vaulted, niche at the east end of a basilica. The side aisles of a basilica may also end in an apse, but it is always in the central apse where the altar is placed. It was separated from the main church by a barrier, the templon, or the iconostasis. Its ground plan on the external side could be semicircular, rectangular or polygonal.

An arch is the opening formed between two columns or pillars. The rows of two or even more such openings are called arcades.

In ancient Roman architecture a large oblong type building used as hall of justice and public meeting place. The roman basilica served as a model for early Christian churches.

chancel screen of presbytery
A short barrier between the bema and the nave. It had originally the form of a parapet that was later made of stone or of marble. It is generally an element of early Christian religious architecture, and it appears on ground plans either as a linear structure or forming a Π. It consists of small columns or pillars in the interspace of which slabs are inserted. Crosses and floral patterns are usually used for the relief decoration of the screen.

(gold seal) Imperial document of the Byzantine state which was so named because it bore the gold seal of the emperor.

A receptacle for holding rainwater, but also water transported from elsewhere, in order to keep it stored. The cisterns were either covered eiter open, and they could have more than one compartements.

Manuscript of papyrus, parchment or paper bound according to the form of a today book. The most common type of book during the medieval period. In the 4th century it replaced the roll thanks to its facilities: the codex could be easily opened to any page, the text could be written on both sides of the sheet and was better perserved.

An auxiliary chamber of the church, also known in early years as skeuophylakion, which could be a separate building attached to the church. There were kept the sacred vessels but sometimes also the offerings of the faithful, the archive or library. In Byzantine churches the diakonikon becomes the sacristy to the south of the Bema, corresponding to the prothesis to the north, and forming along with them the triple sanctuary. It usually has an apse projecting to the east.

A characteristic element of Byzantine architecture. The dome is a hemispherical vault on a circular wall (drum) usually pierced by windows. The domed church emerges in the Early Byzantine years and its various types gradually prevail, while they are expanded in the Balkans and in Russia.

exonarthex (outer narthex)
The transverse vestibule or portico preceding the narthex of the church.

(pl. folles) A Latin word originally meaning a purse, but used in the Byzantine period for the largest denomination of copper coin, initially worth 40 nummi.

The main church in a monastic complex, heart of the monastic activity.

naos (nave)
The main part of the temple, between the narthex and the bema. It was the place where the congregation took part in the liturgy.

A portico or a rectangular entrance-hall, parallel with the west end of an early Christian basilica or church.

opus mixtum (ουδ.)
Masonry consisting of small stones and abudant mortar, which often interchange with horizontal double rows of plinths.

patriarchal monastery (stauropegion)
A monastery under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate, autonomous from the administration of the local bishop. The term stauropegion applied also to villages, meaning that in tax matters (mostly in regard to ecclesiastical taxes) they were under the control of the Patriarchate and not of the local diocese.

Ιn ecclesiastical architecture, the sacristy to the north of the sanctuary. Usually it has an apse projecting to the east. It is the chamber where the eucharistic elements were prepared (Proskomide) before the Communion.

Lat. sigillion – seal –1. During the Byzantine Period the word sigillion refers to the official document bearing a seal issued by the imperial secretariat. The sigillia were divided into lead-seals and gold-seals (chrysobullon sigillion). The same name was used by state services for other documents. The imperial secretariat started to use the first sigillia in the mid 13th c. The Ecumenical Patriarchate replaced former documents known as “hypomnemata” with the sigillia. 2. During the Ottoman Period the sigillia were documents issued by the Patriarch usually for the confirmation of some privileges or the notification of some decision of the Synod.

From the Latin word spolium (=spoils, booty). Architectural remains from destroyed buildings that have been reused in later periods.

Rows of built benches, arranged in a semicircular tier like a theatre, in the apse of a church. On these benches the clergy sat during Divine Liturgy. The bishop sat on the cathedra at the top of the synthronon.

three-aisled basilica
An oblong type of church internally divided into three aisles: the middle and the two side aisles. The middle aisle is often lighted by an elevated clerestory. In the Early Byzantine years this type of church had huge dimensions.


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