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Greek commerce and shipping at the Balkan coast of the Black Sea

Author(s) : Charlafti Gelina (4/30/2008)
Translation : Tsokanis Anna

For citation: Charlafti Gelina, "Greek commerce and shipping at the Balkan coast of the Black Sea",
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Black Sea
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=11531>

Ελληνική εμπορική δραστηριότητα και ναυτιλία στα βαλκανικά παράλια του Ευξείνου (12/16/2008 v.1) Greek commerce and shipping at the Balkan coast of the Black Sea (6/17/2009 v.1) 



Chian network
The network was comprised by the Greek merchants who were active commercialy in the Black Sea, in the Mediterranean and in Western Europe during the period 1830-1860. The most important merchants originated from the island of Chios and very often were connected with kinship ties. These merchants combined trade with shipping and their companies were characterised by discipline and cohesion. The most important families were those of Rodokanakis, Zizinias, Rallis, Dromokaitis, Petrokokkinos, Agelastos. The network's importance declined with the changes in Black Sea trade after the Crimean War (1853-1856), in connection with the technological changes in sea transport.

Corn Laws
The end of the Napoleonic Wars liberated the commercial activity, leading to a steep fall of the prices of cereals in Britain. Representatives of the interests of the agricultural economy, with the land aristocracy at their head, managed in 1815 to persuade the Parliament to pass a legislation, according to which wheat was forbidden to be imported as long as its price was under 80 shillings per quarter (measurement unit for wheat and equals, equal to 64 gallons or 291,2 liters). Over this price imports were free. Respective measures were taken for other cereal products. However, the fact that this measure proved to be a failure in many respects led in 1828 in the adoption of a taxation based on a sliding scale of prices. Pressure against the law from a large part of British society, most notable from the group of industrialists of northern England, was expressed through the organization "Anti-Corn Law League". This pressure, combined with the Great Famine in Ireland (1845-46), forced the Peel administration in 1846 to abolish the Corn Law, liberating in this way the imports of cereals.

gross registered tonnage (grt)
The volume of a ship's closed spaces. 1 gross register ton equals 100 cubic feet or 2,83 cubic metres.

Ionian network
The Ionian network was comprised by the Greek merchants, who were active commercially in the Black Sea (in Odessa and Nikolaiev, ports of the Azov Sea and Danube), Mediterranean and Western Europe during the period 1870-early 20th c. The most important merchants of the network originated from the Ionian islands and especially Cephalonia and Ithaka. The network’s members started their activity as sailing shipowners and they were later involved in trade. At the end of 19th c., they were involved in transportation of cargos of the same kind, especially grain and coal. The network’s members became important shipowners. The network’s most important personalities were Athanasoulis, Antypas brothers, Aravantinos, P. Vallianos, N.P. Vlassopoulos, Drakoulis brothers, Theofilatos and Stathatos, Theofilatos brothers, Kavvadias brothers, G. Kakoulatos, A. Kourkoumelis, Lykiardopouloi brothers, Melissaratou brothers etc.

Navigation Acts
The Navigation Acts were applied in England for the first time in 1651. They provided that all the products from Asia, Africa and America that would be imported to England or to its colonies should be transported with English ships, whose owner and the majority of the crew should be English citizens. The products from Europe should be imported either by English ships or by ships from the country where these products were produced. Since 1822, these restrictive laws were modified and prohibitions were gradually limited, while their complete abolition took place in 1849, as part of the further liberalization of British economy.

net registered tonnage (nrt)
Measure of a ship's cargo capacity (non-productive spaces are not included).


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