Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Black Sea FOUNDATION OF THE HELLENIC WORLD
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INDEX (A - Z)

 
 

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Cercinitis

Cercinitis (26/3/2007 v.1) Κερκινίτις (18/4/2007 v.1)

Ancient Cercinitis is located in the Crimean Peninsula. It was an Ionian colony founded probably in the 6th c. BC. Since written testimonies are either obscure or non-existent, archaeological evidence is the primary tool for the reconstruction of the city's past. Cercinitis was a member of the Athenian League and later it was annexed by the Taurian Chersonesos till its capture by the Scythians in the 2nd c. BC. Agriculture and fishing formed the basis of the economy of Cercinitis, while Olbia...

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Cimmerians

Cimmerians (26/3/2007 v.1) Κιμμέριοι - to be assigned

The Cimmerians were the predecessors of the Scythians. Their art incorporated Greek Geometric as well as Caucasian elements. The Scythians replaced the Cimmerians in the Pontic area. However, the roots of the Cimmerian culture can be traced as far as Siberia and Northern China. A historical overview of the Cimmerians and their culture is provided by the written testimony which consists of both Near Eastern and Greek sources. Archaeological excavations brought to light vast cemeteries and...

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Cimmericon

Cimmericon (18/4/2007 v.1) Κιμμερικόν (26/3/2007 v.1)

Cimmericon seems to have been named after the Cimmerians, an ancient tribe living in the wider area of ancient Scythia. Strabo the Geographer mentions that it had been a town at an earlier date (whereas it was a mere village when he was writing) built on a peninsula and protecting the entrance into the Straits of Cimmerian Bosporus. For modern archaeology it consists one of the several settlements on the European side of Cimmerian Bosporus.

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Circassians

Circassians - has not been published yet Κιρκάσιοι (23/4/2007 v.1)

The Circassian ethnicity belongs to the north-western branch of Caucasian-Iberian peoples. The influence of the Ottoman Empire on the Cherkess was mainly exercised through the suzerainty of the Crimean Tatars who were under Ottoman protection. During the Russo-Ottoman Wars of the 19th century, many Circassians became refugees in the Ottoman Empire.

 

Classical and Hellenistic Greek pottery in the Black Sea region

Classical and Hellenistic Greek pottery in the Black Sea region (11/1/2008 v.1) Κλασική και ελληνιστική κεραμική στην περιοχή του Ευξείνου Πόντου - to be assigned

Attic pottery had prevailed in Mediterranean and Black Sea markets since the 6th century BC. The political conditions in the Pontic area, however, were decisive for the origin of the pottery imported there. So, as Attic wares were becoming less popular in the 3rd century BC , their Ionian counterparts flourished. The Greek pottery in the Black Sea region is represented by all the well known pottery styles and shapes of the period under investigation, distributed not only in the big centres but...

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Colchis

Colchis - to be assigned Κολχίς - to be assigned

 

Crimée médiévale

Crimée médiévale   (26/3/2007 v.1) Crimea in the Middle Ages  (5/12/2007 v.1) Κριμαία (Μέσοι χρόνοι) (1/6/2007 v.1)

La péninsule de Crimée, la péninsule taurique de l'Antiquité, se situe entre la Mer Noire et la Mer d'Azov. La composition ethnique de la Crimée se diversifie pendant l'époque médievale. Dès le début on atteste la presence des Huns et des Goths, tandis que Justinien essaie d'y établir le pouvoir byzantin. Les Khazars font leur apparition au VIIe s. et les Byzantins stabilisent leur présence en formant le thème des Climata au IXe s., avec son centre à Cherson. Le déclin byzantin commença par...

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Калатис / Пангалия

Калатис / Пангалия (27/2/2008 v.1) Callatis / Pangalia (27/2/2008 v.1) Κάλλατις / Παγκάλια (27/2/2008 v.1)

Калатис е основан през 6 в. пр. Хр. На северозападния бряг на Pontus Euxinos или Черно море от елинската колания Хераклея понтика (Heraclea Pontica). Градът е добре укрепен и се развива като търговски и пристанищен център, свързан както с местното население, така и с другите елински градове по черноморското и източносредиземноморското крайбрежие. През 72 г. пр. Хр. е присъединен към Римската империя. Подложен е на чести нападения от готи, авари, славяни и др. Към края на 6 в. окончателно запада...

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Калиакра

Калиакра (26/3/2007 v.1) Kaliakra - has not been published yet Καλιάκρα - has not been published yet

Калиакра е крепост и селище на едноименен нос на западния бряг на Понтос Еуксейнос (Черно море). През античността е укрепено селище „хорион”, незначително засегнат от „елинската колонизация” /VII в. пр.Хр./. През 15 г. крепостта и селището са включени в римската провинция Малка Скития, като от средата на IV век са в границите на Византия. При императорите Валент и Юстиниан І значението на Калиакра в тази част на Понтос Еуксейнос нараства и силно се укрепва. Създадената през втората половина на...

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Кумани

Кумани (11/10/2007 v.1) Cumans (22/10/2007 v.1) Κουμάνοι (22/10/2007 v.1)

Кумани су народ турског порекла, средином 11. столећа дошли су из Азије и у степама источне Европе почели су полако да смењују етнички сродне Печенеге. Крајем 11. столећа пљачкају византијске земље, али су у бици код Лебуниона 1091. године помогли цару Алексију I Комнину да нанесе тежак пораз Печенезима. Њихови напади на Византијско царство наставили су се до 1160. године када престају да буду озбиљна опасност. Део Кумана је дошао и Византију, примио хришћанство, добио поседе и служио у царској...

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