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Cimmerians (26/3/2007 v.1) Κιμμέριοι - to be assigned

The Cimmerians were the predecessors of the Scythians. Their art incorporated Greek Geometric as well as Caucasian elements. The Scythians replaced the Cimmerians in the Pontic area. However, the roots of the Cimmerian culture can be traced as far as Siberia and Northern China. A historical overview of the Cimmerians and their culture is provided by the written testimony which consists of both Near Eastern and Greek sources. Archaeological excavations brought to light vast cemeteries and...



Greeks and Iberians

Greeks and Iberians - to be assigned Έλληνες και Ίβηρες - to be assigned


Greeks and Scythians

Greeks and Scythians - has not been published yet Έλληνες και Σκύθες - to be assigned

The Scythians did not come with an established sophisticated artistic tradition. Their first artifacts were simple, and it was only after their contact with more developed artistic traditions during their invasions in the Near East and their contacts with the Greeks that Scythian art attained a high level of craftsmanship.


Greeks and Thracians

Greeks and Thracians (26/3/2007 v.1) Έλληνες και Θράκες (19/4/2007 v.1)

During the Late Bronze Age, the Mycenaean Greeks and the early Thracians were already neighbours and coexisted in certain areas of the North Balkan Peninsula. A plethora of historical sources and archaeological data testify that from the 8th c. BC onwards, during the Greek colonisation of the North Aegean and the West Pontic shores of ancient Thrace, Greeks and Thracians lived together in various coastal settlements and regions and even mingled through intermarriage. In that period, many...




Sarmatians (26/3/2007 v.1) Σαρμάτες (19/4/2007 v.1)

The Sarmatians were Iranian-speaking nomads mentioned by ancient written sources in the North Pontic area from the 2nd c. BC. They were involved in military conflicts at the edges of the Roman Empire, in the Bosporan Kingdom and the Caucasus. In epigraphic sources the name of the Sarmatians is less known. According to the traditional point of view, their material culture has its roots in the Volga-Ural region from where these tribes moved to the North Pontic steppes. However, until now there...



Scythian Tribes

Scythian Tribes (26/3/2007 v.1) Σκυθικά φύλα - to be assigned

There is not much evidence concerning Scythian tribes. Some archaeological finds are related to their settlements and artworking. The written testimony, however, provides researchers with information connected to their origins, customs, neighbours and the locations where Scythian tribes actually settled.



Thracian tribes

Thracian tribes (26/3/2007 v.1) Θρακικά φύλα (19/4/2007 v.1)

The existence of ancient Thracian tribes is confirmed by ancient Greek and Roman written sources. However, their exact number has not been clarified yet. The connection of the tribes' names with separate locations where they settled remains the most challenging issue. There is also evidence on the political history of the Thracian tribes up to the time of the Roman domination.