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Histros/Histria (Antiquity)

Author(s) : Zahariade Mihail (2/4/2008)

For citation: Zahariade Mihail, "Histros/Histria (Antiquity)", 2008,
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Black Sea
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=10715>

Histros/Histria (Antiquity) (8/28/2008 v.1) Ίστρος / Ίστρια (Αρχαιότητα) (11/19/2008 v.1) 

1. Identification of the city of Histria

1.1. Sources

The town is recorded in a considerable number of historical, geographical, and literary sources from Herodotus (5th c.), to Constantine Porphyrogenitus (10th c.).1 The large volume of inscriptions found since 1914 were published in a single volume in 1983,2 while coin circulation from the 5th c. BC to the 7th c. AD was frequently highlighted in various publications.3 Systematic archaeological excavations, carried out with short intervals since 1914, yielded a huge amount of novel information on urbanism as well as the socio-economic and cultural life of Histria.4

1. 2. Name and Position

Ίστρος, Ίστρια, Ιστρόπολις, Histria, Histros, Histrus, Histropolis are the known names of the town.5 In Antiquity, Histria was situated right on the shore of the Black Sea. The north-south stream gradually blocked direct access to the sea by the formation of sandy cordons and created a large lagoon, known today as Lakes Razelm and Sinoe.6 The initial Archaic Greek settlement lay on a vast promontory-like sandy plain slightly protruding eastward. Today, Lake Sinoe surrounds the ruins of the ancient town from E and N, Lake Histria from W, and Lake Duingi from SW.7

2. History

2. 1. Prehistory

The first Greek colonists settled in an area dominated by the native Getae marked by the last phase of the Babadag III culture (MHC2 = mid-late 7th c.). Native black polished ware was found under the Greek Archaic strata.8

2. 2. Archaic period

It has been securely suggested that initially there existed an emporium9 on which colonists from Miletus founded the 28 ha. city in 657 BC.10 The Archaic pottery (Rhodian and Fikellura styles, Corinthian, Attic-Kleinmeister cups) found at the first three layers (mid - late 6th c.) in sector “X” suggests the existence of an early occupation of commercial character.11 The Archaic town had two main nuclei: a. the Acropolis, on the SE rocky terrain; b. the settlement on the large sandy plateau, ca. 600-700m to the W.12 A mudbrick defence wall enclosed the area in mid 6th century.13 Roads from the W and NW merged towards the town and connected it with the surrounding rural settlements.14

The early town life reached a remarkable intensity highlighted by the layers of occupation identified in the civilian area. The age of prosperity was disrupted by Darius’ Scythian campaign (514 B. C.).15

2.3. Classical Period

The town’s reconstruction ensured another period of prosperity. Histria struck its first silver and bronze coins,16 grew demographically, consolidated its economic wealth, and extended its trade relations with the native Getae and other Hellenic centres. Histria certainly took advantage of the protection of the Odrysian state.17 Around the middle of the 5th c. Histria had an oligarchic regime, possibly controlled by a group of rich ship-owners, merchants and possibly Apollo Ietros’ priests.18Aristotle shows that the discontent among people turned the Histrian regime into a democracy.19 The Athens-led Delian league formed in 478 BC and the strong economic and political influence it exerted in the Greek world stimulated the inclusion of Histria into the Athenian Empire.20

Histria’s prosperity was also the effect of high-level political organization of the neighbouring Getae and the good relations established with local authorities in the hinterland. In the first half of the 4th c. a political formation in NE Dobrudja is marked in an outstanding way through the leaders’ opulent lifestyle; the princely tombs at Agighiol21 and the demographic density in the Enisala22 necropolis exhibit their political and economic power. One can even hypothesize a coalition between Histria and a local dynast, “Rex Histrianorum”, in 339 BC against the Scythian king Atheas who had succeeded in crossing the Danube and threatened the town and the local communities.23

2. 4. Hellenistic period

In 313 BC Histria was caught in the Callatis-led revolt of the western Pontic towns against the political and fiscal oppression of Lysimachus, king of Thrace.24 The town must have endured the king’s retribution. The dynamic of the events involved Histria in an alliance with Apollonia and Callatis in a war, around the Tomis emporium, waged against Byzantium in 256/255 BC.25 By the early 2nd c. Histria plunged into a deep economic and political crisis. A decree honouring the ambassadors sent to Zalmodegikos, king of the Getae, for the return of hostages and Histria’s riches as well as two other decress referring to the barbarian attacks against the town show the extent of the crisis.26 Even so, Histria could still find material and human resources to send a naval squadron to help Apollonia in its war with Mesembria (see Apollonia).27

The progress of the Black Sea basin policy of Mithridates VI, king of Pontus, brought Histria into an alliance with the new emerging power.28 As a consequence, Histria received a garrison led by Diogenes, a strategos sent by the king as an additional measure to reinforce this flank against the Rome’s advance.29

The Varro Lucullus’ successful campaign along the west Pontic shore detached the Greek towns from their previous alliance with Mithridates. Histria surrendered in front of the Roman forces and received a Roman garrison.30

In 61/60 BC Histria participated in the general revolt of the western Pontic towns, to which Getae, Scythians and Bastarnae rallied, against the abuses of C. Antonius Hybrida, proconsul of Macedonia. The final battle, in which the Roman forces were destroyed, took place near Histria.31

Nonetheless, Histria's history followed a series of unhappy events which deeply affected it during the 48/47 BC campaign of the Getic king Burebista against the western Greek Pontic towns when, as archaeological evidence indicates, it was utterly destroyed and conquered.32

After the disaster, Histria lingered on in a difficult situation. As epigraphic evidence from other western Pontic towns suggests, the Greek colonies in this area came under direct Roman jurisdiction. Many, among which Histria, would have received the status of civitas libera et immunis.33

Monuments dedicated to the Roman Emperors became a common trait, and the town’s authorities considered that the new protective administration meant a second city foundation (δευτέρα κτίσις των πόλεων).34

2.5. Early and Late Roman Period

Histria witnessed a period of revival during the early Roman period, although it did not reach its former splendour. First of all, a new defence wall was built which substantially enlarged the occupied area compared to that of the Hellenistic period.35 The building activity within the town is significant, most of the edifices being completely rebuilt, and a new street network traced. The political regime, democratic institutions, and the self-government principles were left untouched at Histria. A fair number of inscriptions offer good evidence of a prosperous intellectual, artistic, and customary religious life in the town. The town’s traditional territory, utilized in Archaic and Classical times was rendered through official decisions.36 In the middle of the 3rd c. Histria experienced a deep economic and cultural crisis caused by the incessant Gothic attacks. In 248 AD Histria was badly affected by a Gothic invasion37 and suffered several times in the 2nd half of the 3rdc. Coin minting ceased after the era of Emperor Gordianus III and was resumed only for a short period during Probus’ reign, when the erection of a new but considerably smaller enclosure wall began. The work was finished only during the Tetrarchic epoch, the last period of prosperity for the town.38

The history of Histria in Late Roman times remains unknown for the most part. In the 6th c., the town had still some importance and became a bishopric that entailed a new urban reorganization of the old network.39 The urban decline was most evident by the end of the 6th c. and the first decades of the 7th c. Histria's buildings and defence walls lay in shambles and the town was finally completely abandoned.40

3. Economy

3. 1. The town economy

Soon after the settling of the first colonists the structures built inside the walled area assumed a social and economic function. Histria soon attained particular significance as a commercial and production centre.

Imported pottery dating from the 2nd half of the 7th c. BC shows an active and flourishing trade with Asiatic or European Greek centres (Miletus, Samos, Chios, Athens, and Corinth).41 Local pottery production, particularly of coarseware, reaches a remarkable intensity by mid-6th c. BC. Other artefacts, like jewels, glass beads, terracotta, wooden beams, and metalworking items were also exported to the Getae. The archaeological excavations in sector “X” yielded conclusive evidence for a remarkable economic prosperity around ca. 600 BC.42

Silver coins (didrahms) struck by Histria from the mid-5th until the late 4th c. BC were a stimulus for the trade. Bronze coins continued to be issued from the mid-5th until the mid 1st c. BC.43 In the 2nd c. AD, after a long interlude, Histria struck bronze coins, but the series ended during Gordianus III’s reign (238-244).

The flourishing trade with other Pontic towns on the western Black Sea shore, from Odessus to Olbia and deep into the Getae hinterland (Dobrudja, the Siret, Prut, Dniester River valleys and central Moldavian plateau) is highlighted by Histrian coins and pottery found in several places.44

3. 2. The economy in the territory

The first colonists provided for the town an initial rural territory for economic exploitation, certainly with the consent of the native Getae. Its extent is known through the excavations in several settlements and necropoleis (Corbu de Jos, Nuntasi, Sinoe, Tariverde, Vadu, Visina, Enisala, and Sarinasuf).45 The Laberius Maximus’ horothesia (boundary regulation) dated 25.10.100 AD constitutes a decreed guarantee and confirms the fact that the town had received during the 1st c. from former governors at least part of the traditional territory (territorium) of exploitation and fiscal immunity, a fact which substantially improved its economic situation.46

The local population was involved in the economic life as shown by the Hallsttatian pottery found in the villages of the Histrian territory. Due to its hinterland, Danube and Black sea Histria became in short time a prosperous exporter of wheat, and particularly salted (or marinated) fish in a remarkable repertoire of species.47 The main Histria’s trade partner remained the Getae aristocracy to which weapons, adornment objects, olive oil, furniture, and a large variety of wines from the southern Aegean islands were constantly delivered. It received in change from the native Getae community cattle, slaves, honey, wax, and fur.

4. Burials and cults

4. 1. Necropoleis

A substantial 6th c. BC to 1st c. AD tumular necropolis is situated to the SW of the extra-mural settlement forming a long axis of several km. There is another submerged necropolis at the place called “La Pod”.48 The existence of another northern tumular necropolis is perceived through some tumuli on the islands of present-day Lake Sinoe .49 The presence of an inhumation necropolis of Greek times is testified by the significant quantity of tombstones, dated in the 5th-1st c. BC. In the area of the modern village of Istria, a 6th-1st c. BC inhumation necropolis pertaining to the rural settlement was also identified.50 On a previously inhabited area, a plateau W of the town, a 35 ha large inhumation necropolis functioned between late 2nd and 6th c. AD. A cremation tumular necropolis that functioned in the 1st-2nd c. AD was identified to the NW periphery of the big tumular necropolis.51

4. 2. Cult

Coins and inscriptions offer good evidence concerning the deities worshipped at Histria. Zeus was referred to in inscriptions as "Πολιεύς", while Aphrodite was worshipped as "Αφροδίτη Ποντία" and protected the sea and seafearers. Each of the gods had a temple dedicated to them. Apollo Ietros ("Απόλλων Ιητρός") (“the Healer”) also had a sanctuary dedicated to him and he seems to have been Histria’s main patron god.52 Apollo, the Dioscuri as river deities, Istros God, Dionysos, Helios, Demetra, and Hermes are often invoked or represented on inscriptions and coins.

5. Monuments and finds

The intense archaeological activity of more than 90 years yielded an immense archaeological material and a considerable number of important monuments. Among the most important are: two temples, one dedicated to Aphrodite and the other to Zeus;53 two bathhouses: Thermae I and II;54 a number of Christian basilicas, among which predominates the great Episcopal basilica ;55 a big number of houses and public buildings.56

6. History of investigation

V. Pârvan inaugurated archaeological investigations between 1914 and 1927. The Lambrino’s team continued the project in several sectors. After WW II E. Condurachi, D. M. Pippidi, P. Alexandrescu, and Al. Suceveanu expanded the excavations E, SE, NE (the “Sector X” “The Sacred Zone”,”Domus sector”, the Archaic, Hellenistic, Early and Late Roman defence walls, the sector on the plateau west of the town, some portions of the tumular necropolis, and recently the Episcopal basilica).57

In parallel, in the last 60 years, Greek or Greek-indigenous or Roman rural settlements in the territory of Histria were investigated (Nuntasi II, Tariverde, Fantanele, Sinoe). Efforts have been made by joint international teams to identify the ancient harbour of the town or to assess environmental conditions in Antiquity.58

1. Hdt. 2. 3; 4. 78; Arist. Pol. 8.5.1; Diod. Sic. 19. 73. 2; 4; Strab. 7.6. 1; Plin. HN 4. 11. 41; 12. 78; 79; Pomp. Mel. Chor. 2. 2. 22; Ptol. Geogr.  3. 10. 3; Arrian. Perip. Pont. Eux.24. 2; Appian. Illyr. 30. 85; Claud. Ael. De Anim. 14. 25; Dio Cass. Hist. Rom. 51. 26. 5; Dexip. Chron. Fr. 20 (14) ad SHA 19 . 3; Itin. Ant. 227. 2; Euseb. Chron. 95. 4, b Helm; Eutrop. Brev. 6. 10; Fest. Brev. 9; SHA v. Max. et Balb. 70; Steph. Byz. s. v. ’Istroß; Hierocl. Synecd. 637. 5; Iord. Rom. 221; Rav. Cosmogr. 4. 6. 47; Georg, Sync. Ecl. Chron. 402; Const. Porphyr. De them. 47. 1. 58-60.

2. Inscriptiones Scythiae minoris graecae et Latinae vol. I. Inscriptiones Histriae et Vicinae, D. M. Pippidi (ed) Bucuresti (1983) (further on ISM 1); Avram, A., “Le corpus des inscriptions d’Istros rivisité”, Dacia N. S. 51 (2007) p. 79-132.

3.  Dimitriu, S., “Descoperiri monetare”, in: Histria. Monografie arheogică, I (1951), p. 464-471; Nubar, H., “Aspetti della circolazione monetaria di Histria nell’epoca romana”, Dacia N. S. 7 (1963) p. 241-256; Preda, C. Nubar, H., Pippidi, D. M., Histria III. Descoperiri monetare 1914-1970 (Bucureşti 1970). This complete volume was followed by yearly reports on coins discoveries (B. Mitrea in SCIV since 1958 and A. Vertan, G. Custurea in Pontica since 1979).

4. Condurachi, Em. Histria I. Monografie arheologică (Bucureşti 1951) p. 63-162; (excavations between 1914-1943); p. 163-363 (excavations between 1949-1952). Up to date bibliography in 1990: Avram, A., Alexandrescu, P., Mărgineanu-Cârstoiu, M., Zimmermann, K., Alexandrescu-Vianu, M. Suceveanu, A., Domăneanţu, C., in: P Alexandrescu, W. Schuler (eds), Histria. Eine Griechenstadt an der rumänischen Schwarzmeerküste, (Xenia 25, 1990); for 1990-2007 see note 57.

5. The etymology of the place name: Bratu, I., Lokale Ortsnamen in den auf dem Gebiet Rumäniens gefundenen Inschriften (Bochum 1992) p. 97-102

6. The process seems to have begun since the 3rd c. BC; Polyb. Hist. 4. 41; cf. Strab. 1.3.4; Condurachi, Em., “Scurt istoric al cetăţii Histria”, in: Histria I p. 9-10; Cotet, P., “Ţărmul Mării Negre şi evoluţia lui in timpurile istorice (cu privire specială asupra regiunii Histria)”, in: Histria II (Bucureşti 1966) p. 327-352; Pippidi, D. M. “Cadrul geographic. Prolegomena geografica”, in: ISM  1 p. 14-22.

7. Canarache, V., “Observaţii noi cu privire la topografia Histriei”, SCIV  7: 3-4 (1956) p.289-318; Alexandrescu, P., “Peisajul Histrian în antichitate”, Pontica 3 (1970), p. 77-86; Coja, M. “Les phases d’habitat du plateau ouest de la cité d’Histria à l’époque greco-romaine”, Dacia N.S. 14 (1970) p. 99-117; Alexandrescu, P., “Notes de topographie histriennne”, Dacia N.S. 22 (1972) p. 331-342. 

8. Berciu, D., Pippidi D.M., op. cit. p.90; Avram, A., “Beziehungen zwischen Griechen und Geten im archaischen Histria”, Studii Clasice 27 (1991) p. 19-30.

9. Dimitriu, S., Coja, M., “La céramique archaïque et les débuts de la cité pontique d’Histria”, Materiale şi Cercetări Arheologice 8 (1962) p. 90-92

10. The traditional date is given by Euseb. Chron. 95. 4, b Helm; cf. Ps. Scymnos 767-772; a commentary on the passage: Vulpe, A., “En marge de Ps. Scymnos 766-770”, in: Premier âge du Fer aux bouches du Danube et dans les regions autour de la Mer Noire. Actes du colloque International (Tulcea 1997) p. 181-185; Condurachi, Em. op. cit., in: Histria I p. 16-17; Alexandrescu, P., “Autour de la date de fondation d’ Histria”, Studii Clasice 4 (1962) p. 49-69; Berciu, D., Pippidi, D. M., Din istoria Dobrogei. Greci şi Geţi la Dunărea de jos, (Bucuresti 1965) p. 150-151; Alexandrescu, P., “Histria in archaischer Zeit”, in: Xenia 25 (1990) p. 233-264; for a later date of foundation: Dimitriu, S., “Tot despre data întemeierii Histriei”, SCIV 15: 2 (1964) p. 251-256; eadem, “Poziţia Histriei în cadrul cronologiilor secolelor VII-VI î. e. n”., SCIV 16: 4 (1965) p. 663-674; eadem, “Despre <temeliile olbiene> de la Histria”, SCIV 17: 3 (1966) p.473-488; Dimitriu, S., Coja, M., op. cit. p. 69-92; Avram, A., Poenaru Bordea, Gh., “Coloniile greceşti din Dobrogea”, in:  Istoria Românilor, vol I. Moştenirea timpurilor îndepărtate, (Bucureşti 2001) p. 535-538. 

11. Dimitriu, S. Coja, M. La céramique d’époque archaïque et classique (VIIe -IVe s.) (Bucuresti 1978); Coja, M., Dupont, P., Histria V. Ateliers céramiques (Bucureşti 1979); see particularly Dimitriu, S., “Câteva precizări asupra ceramicii de stil Fikellura din oraşele pontice”, SCIV 9: 1 (1958) p.113-118; Dimitriu, S., Alexandrescu, P., “Importul ceramicii atice în bazinul Mării Negre pâna la războaiele medice”, SCIV 23: 3 (1972) p. 361-374. 

12. For the Acropolis see: Alexandrescu, P., op. cit, in: Xenia 25 (1990) p. 51-52; for the west plateau: Coja M., op. cit. p. 99-117;  

13. Alexandrescu, P., op. cit. in: Xenia 25 (1990) p. 50-51.

14. Doruţiu Boilă, Em. op. cit. p. 37-46; Alexandrescu, P., op. cit. Pontica 3 (1970) p. 77-86. 

15. Histria in the Archaic period: Berciu, D., Pippidi, D. M. op. cit. p. 149-156; Dimitriu S., “Fizionomia cartierului de locuinţe extra-muros de la Histria în perioada arhaica”, SCIV 21: 2 (1970) p. 225-234; Dimitriu S., Alexandrescu, P.,  op. cit. p. 361-374; Dimitriu, S. Coja, M., op. cit. p. 82. On Histria, in relation with Darius’ expedition: Alexandrescu, P., “Izvoarele greceşti despre retragerea lui Darius din expediţia scitică, SCIV 7: 3-4 (1956) p. 319-343; Berciu, D., Pippidi, D. M., op. cit. p. 162-163; Alexandrescu, P., op. cit. in: Xenia 25 (1990) p. 66-68.

16. Preda, C., “Monedele histriene cu roata şi legenda  IST”, Studii şi Cercetări de Numismatică 3 (1960) p. 21-35 (especially p. 319-321); Mitrea, B., “Descoperirile monetare şi legăturile de schimb ale Histriei cu populaţiile locale în sec. V-IV î. e. n”., Studii Clasice 7 (1965) p. 143-166; Canarache, V., “Sistemul ponderal şi tipologia drahmelor histriene de argint”, Pontice 1 (1968), 107-192. Preda, C., “Über die Silbermünzen der Stadt Istros”, Dacia N. S. 19 (1975) p. 77-85; Preda, C. Nubar, H., Pippidi, D. M. op. cit. p. 17-45.

17. Relations with Mediterranean centres: Condurachi, Em., op. cit. in Histria I p. 17-20; Alexandrescu, P., Histria IV. La céramique d’époque archaïque et classique VIIe-IVe s.(avec la collaboration de S. Dimitriu, M. Coja), (Bucarest 1978), 19-33; protection of the Odrysian kingdom: Condurachi, Em. op. cit., in: Histria I p. 23-24; Berciu, D., Pippidi, D. M. op. cit. 166-167; Alexandrescu, P., op. cit. in: Xenia 25 (1990) p. 68-70.

18. ISM 1, 114, 169, 170 (Hegesagoras, Hyppolochos). Those who dedicated statues to Apollo Ietros (Xenocles and Theoxenos) must have also belonged to the aristocracy of the town.

19. Arist. Pol. 8. 5. 2.; Condurachi, Em., op. cit. in Histria I p. 24-28.

20. Berciu, D., Pippidi, D. M. op. cit. p. 181-182.

21. Berciu, D. Arta traco-getica (Bucureşti 1969) p. 33-76; Alexandrescu, P., “Le groupe des trésors thraces du Nord de Balkans”, Dacia N. S. 27 (1983) p. 45-65; 28 (1984) p. 85-98.

22. Simion, G., “Cultura traco-getică în lumina izvoarelor arheologice descoperite în necropola de la Enisala”, Peuce 2 (1971) p. 63-130; idem, “Les Gètes de la Dobroudja septentrionale du VIe  au  Ier  siècles av. n. e, in: Thraco dacica. Recueil d’études à l’occasion du IIe Congrès International de Thracologie, (Bucharest 1976) p. 148-151.

23. Trog. Pomp. Hist. Philip. 9. 2. 1-16. The analysis of the forces involved in the conflict: Pippidi, D. M., “Les Macédoniens sur le Bas-Danube de Philipp II à Lysimaque”, in: Parerga (Bucharest 1984) p. 151-163; Vulpe, Al., “Istoria şi civilizaţia spaţiului carpato-dunărean între mijlocul secolului al VII-lea şi începutul secolului al III-lea a. Chr”, in: Istoria Românilor  I  p. 456-457.

24. Diod. Sic. Bibl. Hist. 19. 73. 4; Coja, M. “Zidul de apărare al cetăţii Histria şi împrejurările istorice ale distrugerii lui în secolul al IV-lea”, SCIV 15: 3 (1964) p. 383-400; Berciu, D., Pippidi, D. M. op. cit. 217-218; Avram, A., Poenaru Bordea, Gh., op. cit. p. 597-598.

25. On the Histria-Apollonia alliance see ISM 1, 112; the war between Callatis and Histria on one side and Byzantium on the other: Memnon frg. 21 (FHG 3 p. 537=FGrHist 3 B 434 frg. 13; Pippidi, D. M., “Histria şi Callatis în secolele III-II î.e.n. Cu prilejul unei inscripţii inedite”, SCIV 4 (1953) 3-4 p. 487-514; ibidem, in: Contribuţii la istoria veche a României2, (Bucureşti 1967) p. 32-67; Avram, A., Poenaru Bordea, Gh., op. cit. p. 599-600.

26. ISM 1, 8. The Getae king seems to have disposed of the Histria’s revenues, as long as the envoys convinced him to render “the people’s incomes”. Another episode of the dependence of Histria from the local dynasts unfolded around Rhemaxos who was solicited to intervene militarily in order to defend the town from the Zoltes-led Thracian marauding bands; ISM 1, 15.

27. ISM 1. 64=IGB 12 388.                                    

28. Salomone-Gaggero, E. “Relations politiques et militaires de Mithridate VI Eupator avec les populations et les cités de la Thrace et avec les colonies grecques de la Mer Noire occidentale”, Pulpudeva 2 (1978) p. 294-305.

29. Avram, A.. Bounegru, O., “Mithridates al VI-lea Eupator şi coasta de vest a Pontului Euxin. În jurul unui decret inedit de la Histria”, Pontica 30 (1997) p. 155-164.

30. Eutop. Brev. 6. 10; Fest. Brev. 9; Iord. Rom. 221. There is no clear indication of a garrison at Histria at that time, but the authors’ texts are inducing to its existence; however, cf. IGB 12 314, where C. Cornelius appears as Lucullus’ lieutenant on the Black Sea shore.

31. Dio Cass. 38. 10. 3.

32. The Histria’s destruction is clearly revealed by ISM 1. 54, a decree given in the honour of Aristagoras the Apatourios’ son, which shows that “the town did not have defence walls anymore” and “the barbarians were in control of the region”.

33. The event seems to have happened towards the end of the 1st c. BC as the general historical (Vell. 2. 101. 3) and epigraphic context show (ISM 3, 40-42, 44, 45);  Avram, A., Poenaru Bordea, Gh., op. cit. p. 613-615.

34. ISM 1, 191, 193.

35. Preda, C., “Doicescu, A., Zidul de apărare din epoca elenistică”, in: Histria II  p. 133-294; Pippidi, D. M. “Histria aux Ier - IIIe siècles”, Dacia N. S. 19 (1975) p. 141-182; Suceveanu, A. “Das römische Histria”, in: Xenia 25 (1990) p. 234-235. 

36. ISM 1, 67, 68. The boundary regulation of 25 October 100 A. D. records the names of the previous 1st c. governors who successively granted fiscal and economic privileges to Histria; Pippidi, D. M. “Das Stadtgebiet von Histria in römischer Zeit auf Grund der οροθεσία des Laberius Maximus (SEG I 329)”, Dacia N. S. 2 (1958) p. 227-248; idem, “Hotărnicia consularului Laberius Maximus”, in: Contribuţii la istoria veche a României2, (Bucureşti 1967) p. 349-385.

37. Doruţiu-Boilă, Em., “Zur Frage der Zerstörung Histrias im 3 Jhd. u. Z”., Studii Clasice 6 (1964) p.247-259; Poenaru Bordea, Gh., “Numismatica şi distrugerea Histriei în secolul al III-lea” Studii şi Cercetări Numismatice 5 (1971) p. 91-113; Doruţiu-Boilă, Em., “Histriae excidium”, Dacia  N. S. 29 (1985) p. 133-134. 

38. Domăneanţu, C., Sion, A., “Incinta romană târzie de la Histria. Incercare de cronologie”, SCIV 33: 4 (1982) p. 377-394; Chiriac, C. “O inscripţie de la Diocleţian descoperită la Histria”, SCIVA 38: 3 (1987) 3 p. 281-284; Domăneantu, C., Die Spätrömische Festungsmauer, in: Xenia 25 (1990) p.265-284; Suceveanu, A. op. cit., p. 243;.

39. In the 4th c. Histria was not included in the list of celebriora towns of the province of Scythia (Amm. Marc. 27. 4. 12). It still knew certain prosperity in the relatively peaceful first quarters of the 4th c. as results from inscriptions, art monuments and public buildings; Suceveanu, A., op. cit. p. 245-246. A last age of moderate prosperity occurred in the 6th century during Anastasius’ and Justinian’s reigns; Condurachi, Em. “Histria à l’époque du Bas-Empire d’après les derniers fouilles archéologiques”, Dacia N. S. 1 (1957) p. 245-263; Nubar, H., “Contribuţii la topografia cetăţii Histria în epoca romano-bizantină. Consideraţii generale asupra necropolei din sectorul bazilicii <extra muros>”, SCIV 22: 2 (1971) p. 199-215; Suceveanu, A. op. cit. p. 249-250; Bounegru, O., “Date stratigrafice recente privind reţeaua stradală din cartierul ‘Domus’ de la Histria”, Pontica 33-34 (2000-2001) p. 397-413; Bounegru, O., Lungu, V., “Histria. Cercetări recente în cartierul <Domus>”, SCIVA 54-55 (2003-2005) p. 167-178.

40. Suceveanu, A. op. cit., p. 250.

41. Lambrino, M., “Les vases archaïques d’Histria”, (Bucarest 1938); Alexandrescu, P., Histria IV. La céramique d’époque archaïque et classique VIIe - IVe s., (avec la collaboration de Dimitriu, S., Coja, M.) (Bucarest 1978) p. 19-33; Avram, A. Histria VIII. Les timbres amphoriques 1. Thasos (Bucarest 1996); Conovici, N., Histria VIII. Les timbres amphoriques 2. Sinope (Bucharest 1998); Alexandrescu, P., Histria VII. La zone sacrée d’époque grecque (Bucarest 2005) p. 329-384.

42. Lambrino, M., op. cit. p. 24; Coja, M., “Activitatea meştesugărească la Histria”, SCIV  13: 1 (1962) p. 19-46; Alexandrescu, P., “Un groupe céramique fabriquée à Istros”, Dacia N. S. 16 (1972) p. 113-131; Dimitriu, S. Iliescu, O., Comănescu, S., “Poids archaïques découvert à Histria”, Dacia N. S. 18 (1974) 265-271; Zimmermann, K.,  Alexandrescu, P., “Steingerate Griechischer Zeit aus Histria”, Dacia N. S. 24 (1980) 267-282; Alexandrescu, P., “Histria in archaischer Zeit”, in: Xenia 25 (1990), 47-102, especially 50-56.

43. Preda, C., Nubar, H. op. cit., p. 17-45; 57-85; Preda, C. “Über die Silbermünzen der Stadt Istros”, Dacia N. S. 19 (1975) p. 77-85; Poenaru Bordea, Gh., “Monede recent descoperite şi unele probleme de circulaţie monetară în Dobrogea antică”, Pontica 4 (1971) p. 319-337; Panait Bârzescu, F., “Histria. Cele mai timpurii monede histriene de argint. Consideratii stilistice şi iconografice”, SCIVA 54-55 (2003-2005) p. 211-221.

44. Berciu, D., Pippidi, D. M., op.cit. p. 165-166; Coja, M., “Ceramica autohtonă de la Histria. Secolele V-I î.e.n.”, Pontica 3 (1970) p. 99-124; Alexandrescu, P., op. cit. p.63-66; Simion, G., op. cit. p. 145-147; Conovici, N. “Contribuţii numismatice privind legăturile Histriei cu geţii de la Dunăre în secolele VI-II î. e. n.”, SCIVA 30 (1979) 1 p. 87-94; Babeş, M., “Spaţiul carpato-dunărean în secolele III-II a. Chr.”, in:  Istoria Românilor, I  p. 504-507; see also notes 21 and 22.

45. Stoian, I., “In legatură cu vechimea teritoriului rural al Histriei”, SCIV 8: 1-4 (1957) p. 183-205; Ştefan, A., “Probleme ale strategiei Histriei şi ale organizării teritoriului sau rural în epoca pre-romana”, SCIVA 33: 2 (1982) p.199-208; Berciu, D., Pippidi, D. M., op. cit., 198-200.

46. See n. 36.

47. Berciu, D., Pippidi, D. M., op. cit., 165.

48. Histria’s neclopolises: Alexandrescu, P., Histria II. Necropola tumulară. Săpături 1955-1961 (Bucureşti 1966) p. 133-294; Zimmermann, K., Avram, A., “Archäologische Ausgrabungen in Histria Pod, SR Rumänien. Zwishenbericht über die vorläufigen Ergebnisse der Kampagne 1980-1985”, Klio 69 (1987) p. 6-27.

49. Alexandrescu, P., “Peisajul histrian în antichitate”, Pontica 3 (1970) p. 80-81.

50. Teleagă, E., Zirra, V., (with the collaboration of Botezatu, D.) Die Nekropole des 6-1Jhs.v. Chr. Von Istria Bent bei Histria. Archäologische Untersuchungen zur Bevölkerung in der westlichen Schwarzmeerregion (2003).

51. Coja, M., “Un mormânt de incineraţie de epocă romană de la Histria”, SCIVA 25: 1 (1974) p. 44.

52. Alexandrescu, P., Histria VII p. 80-82; 88-89 (Zeus); 75-79; 86-88 (Aphrodite); 83-85; 89-93 (Apollo Ietros).  

53. See note 52; also Berciu, D., Pippidi, D. M., op. cit. p.168-173; Pippidi, D. M, Bordenache, G., Eftimie, V., “Sectorul templului grec”, Materiale şi Cercetări Arheologice  8 (1962) p. 383-389;  Bordenache, G., Eftimie, V., Dimitriu, S., “Sectorul T”, Materiale şi Cercetări Arheologice  9 (1963) p. 178-186.

54. Suceveanu, A., Histria VI. Les Thermes romains (avec la collaboration de Sion, A., Poenaru Bordea, Gh., Vecerdea, Gh.) (Bucarest-Paris 1982) p. 13-28 (Thermae I); 29-39 (Thermae II).

55. Suceveanu, A. Histria XIII. La basilique episcopale (avec la collaboration de Milosević, G., Bounegru, O., Muşeteanu, C., Poenaru Bordea, Gh.) (Bucarest 2007) (the Episcopal basilica); Bajenaru, C., “Histria. Basilica C. rezultate preliminare”, SCIVA 54-56 (2003-2005) p. 149-166; Achim, I., “Histria. Basilica <Florescu>. Noi cercetări (2002-2004)”, SCIVA 54-56 (2003-2005) p. 179-194.

56. Condurachi, Em., op. cit. p. 251-260; Bounegru, Lungu, V. “Histria. Cercetări recente în cartierul <Domus>”, SCIVA 54-55 (2003-2005) p. 167-178(with previous bibliography); Suceveanu, A., Scorpan, C.,  “Stratigrafia Histriei romane târzii în lumina săpăturilor din 1969 şi 1970 în sectorul central”, Pontica 4 (1971) p. 155-172.

57. Condurachi, Em., op. cit. p. 251-260; Bounegru, Lungu, V. “Histria. Cercetări recente în cartierul <Domus>”, SCIVA 54-55 (2003-2005) p. 167-178(with previous bibliography); Suceveanu, A., Scorpan, C.,  “Stratigrafia Histriei romane târzii în lumina săpăturilor din 1969 şi 1970 în sectorul central”, Pontica 4 (1971) p. 155-172.

58. Alexandrescu, P., “Notes de topographie histrienne”, Dacia N. S. 22(1978) p. 331-342; Höckmann, O., Muller, U., Peschel, G., Woehl, A., “Histria an der Küste des Schwarzen Meeres. Prospektionarbeiten im antiken Stadtgebiet”, Antike Welt 3 (1997) p.209-216; Höckmann, O. “Der Hafen der griechischen kolonie Histria in Rumänien”, Nürnbergerblätter zur Archäologie 18 (2001-2002) p. 169-184. A recent general presentation of  Histria: Oppermann, M., Thraker, Griechen und Römer an der Küste des Schwarzes Meeres, Mainz (2007) p. 10-15; 24-25; 43-47; 72-75; 101-105.


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