Mesembria (Middle Ages), History

1. Introduction

Mesembria is located on an island, connected with the land through an isthmus. This isthmus was only 12.0 m wide and 3 m height and according to the French traveler Jean-Batiste Lechevalier (18th century) „it has been flooded by the sea waves during the storms”.1 The factors of transgression and the earthquakes took much of the ancient land space of the island. The underwater excavations confirmed the presence of late antique and medieval ports and walls drown into the sea through the centuries.

2. Late Antiquity and Byzantine period

During late antiquity Mesembria was included in the province of Haemimont in Thrace. According to Procopius Caesariensis (note?) and some brick stamps (+ IΟΥΣΤΙΝΙΑΝΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΚΤΙΣΤΟΥ) the fortress walls and some of the churches were reconstructed or entirely rebuilt in the age of Emperor Justinian the Great.2 Immigrants from Apamea were settled in Mesembria in the late 7th c.3

Although its position aside of the main direction of the Avar raids, Theophylactus Simocatta states that in 587 the city was captured but was not sacked.4 Five hundred men of the urban militia have defended the fortress. Simocatta mentions also the existence of several the forts on the city’s territory. An interesting hoard of solidi of Emperor Constans II (641-668) probably is an indicator for another threat of barbarian devastation dated to the middle of the 7th c.

2.1. Ecclesiastical organisation

As regards its ecclesiastical organisation, Mesembria and its vicinity fell under the control of a local bishop since the early 4th c.m which is certified by the attendance of “Leon, bishop of the blessed city of Mesembria” at the council of Nicaea in 325.5 Till 640 the bishop of Mesembria was subordinate to the archbishop of Hadrianopolis, whereas he received afterwards a status of “independent archbishop in the province of Haemimont, without subordinated bishops” and was included in all lists until the reign of emperor Alexios I Komnenos.6

2.2. Messembria beetween Byzantium and Bulgaria

2.2.1. Messembria as strategic port

The foundation of the Bulgarian Kingdom in 681 raised the position of Mesembria as military fore post of Byzantium in its wars with Bulgaria.7 Theophanes Confessor, Patriarch Nicephorus and others, describing the campaigns of Emperor Constantine V between 756 and 775, drew attention to the place of the city as strategic port, for the byzantine navy and trade.8 The earliest written source concerning the port of Mesembria is the Compasso da navigare dated to 1296. The port is described there as follows: “Mezembre is a good port with a castle, located above it. And you can be sure for all the winds and the depth of the floor that is between six and thirty feet”.9 The great amount of lead seals of Byzantine magistrates (kleisourarches, ek prosopou, strategos, katepano, anagrapheus) confirm the contribution of Mesembria in the logistics and supplying of the debarking troops (note?).

The kommerkion of Mesembria was the first and for a certain period the sole Byzantine existing, serving the trade relation with Bulgaria.10 It was established immediately after the foundation of the Bulgarian Kingdom. The earliest seals date back to 690-691 as its furthter development is known also by lead seals (note?). The end of the kommerkion was connected with the events following the Bulgarian siege in October 812.11 The kommerkiarioi who were staying in the city were responsible for the levy of the entire theme of Thrakesion. Accordindg to the sphragistic data some of the kommerkiaroi were: Kosmas (690-691), Constantine (700-702), Synetos and Niketas (713-714), Thomas pathrikios (722-723). All the seals had been found in Constatntinople.12

2.2.2. Bulgarians attack Messembria

Theophanes the Confessor states that in 705 the exiled Emperor Justinian II (685-695; 705-711) left Cherson and undertook a march against the government in Constantinople along with Khan Tervel. The future Emperor Leo the Isaurian waited for them in Mesembria, providing them 500 sheep and joined their troops.13 Theophanes also describes the great cold spell in 763, as the sea had frozen over to Mesеmbria and Midia.14 In 764 the so-called „antibyzantine” party in Bulgaria accused Khan Sabin (761-765) of treachery and the later found an assault in Mesembria, from where he sailed to Constantinople.15

After the death of Emperor Nicephoros I (802-811) during the war against Bulgaria, Mesembria became the main target of the offensive Bulgarian policy towards the Black sea coast. During the negotiations in 812, Khan Krum threatened Emperor Michael I Rangabe, that if the latter refused to sign the suggested peace treaty, the Bulgarian troops would attack Mesembria. In October 812 the city was besieged by the Bulgarians. One month later (4th of November) the fortress fell. Among others they captured 36 copper reservoirs, containing the mixture of the famous Greek or Liquid fire. A relict of this military success is the marble column found in Pliska, with the Greek inscription “Fortress Mesembria”.16 One of its most important consequences was the transfer of the kommerkion to Debeltos.

2.2.3. Byzantine offansive

Mesembria was restored to Byzantium after the strategic march in 863 and became a border city between the two states. Two inscriptions attest the repairing works during the reign of Basil I the Macedonian (867-886): 1. “This city, destroyed by the pagans, with the mindfulness of the past rulers was built anew from its foundations.... and completed by the God crowned Roman emperors Basil and Leo along with Alexander in the year...(probably 879)”; 2. “Basil in Christ Emperor of the Romans...”.17 Probably the foundation of kleisura (a smaller theme, consisting of a mountain chain and mostly of gorges, fortified against the enemies) followed this restoration. Four lead seals mention Mesembria’s kleisourarchoi (Alexios, imperial spatharokandidatos; Basil, spatharokandidatos; George, spatharios; Pankratios, protospatharios). Basil and George have also been attested in Preslav which could be explained by the role of Mesembria as negotiator in settling the border-line disputes between the two states.18

Mesembria as well as the entire West Black Sea area fell under Bulgarian dominion after the end of the war of 894-904. The city remained within the borders of the Bulgarian Kingdom till 971. During this period the building of new fortifications and the reconstruction of some churches had been done on the initiative of the Bulgarian rulers Symeon the Great (893-927 and his son Peter(927-969). In 927, according to George Hamartolos and Theophanes Continuatus, Emperor Roman I Lekapenos sent to Mesembria his representatives, the monk Theodosios Aboukes and Basil of Rhodos in order to meet Bulgarian delegates for the initial peace negotiations.19

2.2.4. Ecclesiastical and cultural center

After the Conversion of the Bulgarians in 865-866, Mesembria became an important centre of the ecclesiastical and cultural contacts between Byzantium and Bulgaria. According to many scholars the city was an early example of the symbiosis of these two states during this period. In 1140 the archbishop of Mesembria attended a synodal session which gives us reasons to suggest that on the late 12th c. the archbishop's dignity was raised from “an independent … without suffragan bishops” to a metropolitan one .20 The sphragistic data give information about five archbishops of Mesembria that resided at Mesembria between the 9th and the 12th century – David, Christophoros (9thc.), Constantine, Hilarion and Michael (11th c.).21

3. Period of Byzantine domination (971-1186)

Ioannes Scylitzes Continuatus wrote that in 1063 Constantinople and the Thracian coast of the Black sea suffered by a great earthquake.22A Greek inscription mentions restoration works of the fortress wall: “With the help of God, the wall of Mesembria was restored at the time of Constantine (Constantine X Doukas (1059-1067) and Eudocia”.23 An apocryphal Bulgarian legend connects the building works with the Bulgarian insurgent ruler "Gagan Odelian", Peter Delyan (1040-1041): “And another tsar came – who bore the name of Gagan while his surname was Odelian. And he undertook the Bulgarian and the Greek kingdoms… And he founded three cities: 1. Cherven; 2. Nessebar; 3. Shtip. And he ruled there for twenty-eight years and he fell on Ovche Pole”.24

Ioannes Scylitzes' Continuatus notes that the Pecheneg raids from the 70s affected also Mesembria.25 In 1079 the Bulgarian population in Mesembria and its vicinity revolted against the Byzantine government. The leader of this uprising was a certain (Theodore?) Dobromiros, who however yielded soon. He was granted by the the Byzantine government with the honorary title vestarches and the office proedros.26 In order to negotiate with the riots and to conclude a truce and agreement, Constantinople sent to Mesembria the protovestes Leon Diabatenos. In the 11th c. Mesembria continued to be a main naval base of the byzantine Black sea fleet. In the late 11th c. the naval headquarter was transfered to Anchialos.

In the 12th c. Mesembria is mentioned as “the city of Mesembria in Thrace” in the geographical work (1119) of the Italian Guido of Ravenna (? – 1169).27 In 1134 the Rusian prince of Galicia Ivan Rostislavich – Berladnik, gave to the traders of Mesembria a charter of duty free trade in his realm.28

According to Nicetas Choniates in the summer of 1190 during the campaign of Emperor Isaac II Angelos against the revolt of the Assenids in Bulgaria Mesembria was used again as naval base. The troops debarked near Mesembria and continued the march towards Tarnovo.29

4. Late Middle Ages

4.1. 13th century

4.1.1. Bulgarian-Byzantine conflicts and relationships

Choniates refers that in 1201 bulgarian tsar Kaloyan undertook a march, which lead to the fall of the important fortresses of Odessos and Konstantia. The Fourth Crusade and the fall of Constantinople facilitated the capture of Mesembria and of the entire West Black Sea area by the Bulgarians. The Latin emperor Henry of Flanders (1205-1216) tried in autumn of 1206 to besiege some of the Black Sea cities but his campaigns were totally unsuccessful. In the period between 1201-1263 many of the West Black Sea cities and Mesembria as well remained under the control of the Bulgarian Kingdom.30

Several days before the 6th January of 1235 on his way back from Jerusalem the Serbian archbishop Sava arrived in Constantinople and decided to visit his son-in-law tsar Ivan Assen II (1218-1241). According to his Lifehe arrived in Mesembria by the sea. Ivan Assen IIsent guardians to escort the guest to the Bulgarian capital city, Tarnovo.31

μέχρι εδώ

At the end of his rule Ivan Assen II gave Zagoria and the zone of the South Black Sea coast, including Mesembria, in possession of his son-of-law the despotes Michael (Mitso), who has emerged in the years of the Civil war in Bulgaria (1256-1257) as the main pretender for the
Bulgarian crown.32 During this period the fleet of Venice, lead by the admiral Jacobo Dauro, captured the city. The Venetians robbed some of the city’s churches. They stole the relics of St. Theodor Stratilates, St. Sistos, St. Bartholomew from St. Sophia and many of the ecclesiastical silverware.33 Later Michael (Mitso) fought back the city, continuing the war against the new ruler - tsar Constantine Tychos Assen (1257-1277). After negociating with the future Emperor Michael VIII Palaelogos, Mitso gave up Mesembria and received some lands in Asia Minor and future political benefits.34 In the late 1257 or in the very beginning of 1260 Mesembria was yielded to Bulgaria again.35

Manuel Philes (1275-1345) foretold the story of the curopalates Michael Glava Tarchaniotes, who restored the Byzantine power in the area of the West Black Sea for a second time in 1263: “He has reached the beautiful Mesembria – He, the sun that raised in the West, turning the Bulgarian ruler into ashes - the famous and the mighty Constantine.”36

After the untimely death of his wife Irene in 1268, tsar Constantine Tychos signed a treaty with Byzantium and married Maria, the cousin of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos. The Byzantine government assumed to give up Mesembria and Anhialos as dowry.37 The refusal of Michael Palaeologos to enact the treaty led to new war, as Tatars raided Bulgaria in union with him.38 So till the death of Constantine Tychos Mesembria remained in the possession of Byzantium. In 1280 tsar Ivan Assen III (1279-1280), leaving Bulgaria with a great part of the Bulgarian treasury escaped to Mesembria and embarked later to Constantinople.39

Manuel Philes underlined the connection of Mesembria with the Bulgarian renegades Michael – Mitso and Ivan Assen III, considering the city as the most valuable acquisition of Emperor Michael Palaiologos. He determined it as “your Mesembria”, “your old Mesembria” and “the well organized by us Mesembria”40

4.1.2. Trade of Venice and Genoa

The attendance of trade factories of Venice and Genoa on the Black sea coast emerged after the restoration of Byzantium. In November 1268 the local officials Protaksimenes, Kaloyan, Michael Stratigla and Constantine Kalauros with customs of 17 perperoi levied Marco Arnaldo in Mesembria.41 The trader from Venice Giacomo Magno, twice sent in Mesembria textiles with the ship of his colleague from Raguza Marin Bunich. He also arrived in the city and was levied with customs of 25 perperoi. He bought a ship, laded it with grain and sent the goods to Constantinople. The governor of the province of Mesembria Roukas levied the grain and injured the trader with 160 perperoi.42

Some notary’s acts of traders from Genoa also present Mesembria as a destination of the trade with textiles and golden objects from Lombardia. The best time for the trade was between August and September, because the ships that come back could be laded with grain from Thrace.43

4.1.3. Church administration

The data concerning the history of the metropolis of Mesembria in the Late Middle Ages are also scarce. The eparchy frequently changed its jurisdiction.44 The archbishops who ruled the metropolis in the times of tsar Ivan Assen II “Basil, Marc, Nikodimos, Procles, Doroteos and Partenios” are mentioned in the “Synodic of tsar Boril”.45 In 1274 the archbishop of Mesembria was no more under the control of the Patriarchate of Tarnovo. He joined the unia of Constantinople with the Pope of Rome.46

4.2. 14th century

4.2.1. History

In the spring of 1304 the Bulgarian tsar Todor Svetoslav (1300-1322) and his uncle Altimir defeated the Byzantine army at the river of Skafida. According to the peace treaty Mesembria became Bulgarian possession again.47

In 1330 after the Bulgarian disaster at the battle of Velbuzhd against Serbia, Emperor Andronikos III tried to restore the Byzantine dominions on the Black sea coast and in the spring of 1331 he sent as governor of Mesembria the protostrator Theodoros Synadin. After the defeat at Rosokastro, the population of Mesembria massacred the Byzantine garrison or threw down the survivals from the city wall.48

In 1351 Mesembria was attacked by the fleet of the Genoese admiral Paganino Doria and has been sacked.49 In 1364 Emperor Ioannes V Palaiologos (1332-1391) undertook a campaign against the West Black Sea cities. He also besieged Mesembria. His soldiers built a belfry on the isthmus, approaching to the city and also attacked the fortress by the sea. Tsar Ivan Alexander sent troops to help the local garrison. The war finished with negotiations and the Bulgarian government restored the outcomes of the war.50

Count Amadeus VI of Savoy, who planned a Crusade against the Turks in 1366, decided to raid the West Black Sea cities. He managed to seize Agathopolis, Sozopolis and Skafida. After that his fleet and troops blocked Mesembria by land and sea. The Bulgarian kastrofilax Kaloyan defended the fortress vigorously but actually it gave up in 21 October 1366. Amadeus nominated Berlion de Forasio and Giyom de Chalon for city governors. The contribution imposed to the local population amounted to 20 102 hyperpyra. The stolen property was sold to traders from Venice and Genoa. Till the beginning of March 1367 Mesembria was a headquarter of Amadeus. He gave back the city to Ioannes V Palaiologos for the sum of 12 000 hyperpyra. The later collected the money on the expense of the population of Mesembria.51

Soon after 1367 the Black sea area, south of Haemus became an apanage dominion called Zagora. In August 1369 Ioannes V Palaiologos gave it to his son Michael Palaiologos, who married the daughter of despotes Dobrotitsa (1354-1386). Michael tried for a second time to gain the crown of the Empire of Trebizond, but in 1377 he was killed by Terter, brotrher-in-law of his in Drastar.52

4.2.2. Church of Mesembria. Donations and monuments

During the reign of tsar Ivan Alexander (1331-1371) the monasteries of Mesembria received some privileges. He issued charters of donations for the monasteries of “Theotokos Eleusa” and “St. Nicolas of Emona”.53 According to the inscription of the tsar’s uncle Samuel on a silver icon of “Theotokos Eleusa” (1341-1342), he also made donations of certain monastery.54

The ecclesiastical history of Mesembria is enlightened through some decrees of the Constantinopolitan Patriarchate. In 1369 the hieromonk Makarios was promoted in archimandrites and hegoumenos of the monastery “Christ Acropolites” in Mesembria. He managed to restore it from the ruins. He also took up the duty to deposit the kanonikon and the kaniskion. In 1379 Emperor Ioannes V Palaiologos issued a decree in favor of metropolitans and confirmed his rights to manage the local monasteries “Christ Acropolites”, “Theotokos Eleusa”, “St. Vlachos” and “Panagia Agiosoritisa”. These acts changed the position of the Mesembria’s monasteries, from metropolitan to stauropigions. The stauropigian rights of the monasteries were confirmed in 1391 with a new synodal decree.55

4.3. 15th-16th centuries. Ottoman Turks and Messembria

The Turks seized Mesembria for the first time in 1396. The invaders deported the Christian population to a settlement on river Acheloy, called Chimos. The archbishop of Mesembria was included into a new ecclesiastical structure under the metropolitan of Heraclea, now called an “an exarchos of Black Sea”.56

Mesembria remained under Turkish rule till 1403 when Suleyman Çelebi gave up the city to the so-called “Christian league” and Byzantium. Mesembria changed twice its rulers in 1411 and 1413 when Mûsa seized the city later being gave back again to Manuelos II Palaiologos.57

Before his death in 1425 Manuel II Palaiologos gave Mesembria and the Black Sea coast to his fourth son Constantine Dragases Palaiologos (the future Constantine XI). In 1429 he restored the city to the Byzantine crown.58

In 1440 Emperor Ioannes VIII Palaiologos yielded Mesembria and the other parts of Black Sea litoral to his brother Dimithrios Palaiologos. In 16th of April 1442 Paul Assen – the governor of Constantinople and his daughter Theodora Assenina escaped to Mesembria. The Mesembrian despotes revolted agaisnt his brother – the Emperor and in league with the Turks, even had atacked Constantinople. In the beginning of 1444 Dimitrios Palaiologos was deprived of his dominions and exiled to the Aegean islands. However he kept the title “despotes of the Black Sea”.59

During the reign of Constantine XI and the Christian campaigns against the Turks, Janosh Hunyadi demanded the city as main naval base for the army of the Crusaders. Emperor Constantine XI edited a decree, delivering Mesembria to the Hungarians.60 However Hunyadi didn’t manage to enter into possession of Mesembria. In the beginning of March 1453 the Rumelian Beg Karadzha seized Mesembria along the other West Black Sea cities, being still free.61

After the fall many of the Mesembria’s citizens were moved to settle in Constantinople. They received new houses and lands, incorporating themselves very fast into the economic and political life of the new Ottoman capital.

1. Димитров, Д., ‘Несебърското пристанище през средновековието, in Bulgaria Pontica medii aevi (Mesemvria Pontica) Международен семинар – Несебър, Май 28-31, 2006 г. Studia in honorem Professoris Vasil Guzelev. Бургас, р. 314.

2. Beševliev, V., Spätgriechische und spätlateinische Inschriften aus Bulgarien, in Berliner Byzantinische Arbeiten 30, Berlin, 1964, n. 153, a-i.

3. Beševliev, V., Spätgriechische und spätlateinische Inschriften aus Bulgarien, in Berliner Byzantinische Arbeiten 30. n. 161.

4. Theophylactus Simocatta, Historia, 4, ІІ, 12, 16 (ed. C. de Boor), Lipsiae, 1887, p. 231.

5. Acta Conciliarum, Sancta Synodus Sexta Generalis, n. 3 ; Sancta Synodus Nicaena Secunda Generalis Septima, n. 2, in Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima colectio, X-XIII, (ed. D. Mansi), Paris-Leipzig, 1901, pps. 356-358, 376.

6. Notitia episcopatum, Pseudoepiphanii Notitia, n. 32; Notitia tempore Isaurorum Scripta, n. 38; Imperatoris Leonis Notitia, n. 42, in Hieroclis Synecdemus et Notitiae graecae episcopatum, (ed. G. Parthey), Berolini, 1866, 150-161.

7. Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, 32, 10-13, (ed. C. de Boor) Lipsiae, 1883, p. 360.

8. Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, 51, 29, (ed. C. de Boor) Lipsiae, 1883, p. 447 ; Anastasius Bibliotecarius, Chronographia Tripertita, 50, 25-30, in Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, 1, (ed. C. de Boor) Lipsiae, 1883, p. 296.

9. Димитров, Д., ‘Несебърското пристанище през средновековието’, р. 318.

10. Oikonomidès, N., Listes de presence byzantines des IX et X siècles. Paris, 1972, p. 47.

11. Iordanov, I., ‘Mesembria (VI-XII c.), according to sphragistic data’, in Bulgaria Pontica medii aevi, IV-V2, София, 2006, p. 44; Шандровская, В., ‘Таможенная служба в Месемврии (по данным сфрагистики)’, in Bulgaria Pontica medii aevi, IV-V2, София, 2006, pps. 31-42.

12. Zacos, G. Byzantine lead seals. Vol. I. Basel, 1972, n. 132, 155, Pl. 10, n. 2; Pl. 30, n. 1; 2; 200a; Iordanov, I., ‘Mesembria (VI-XII c.), according to sphragistic data’, p. 45.

13. Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, 38, De Leonis origine, 5-10, (ed. C. de Boor) Lipsiae, 1883, p. 391; Anastasius Bibliotecarius, Chronographia Tripertita, 37, 28, (ed. C. de Boor) Lipsiae, 1883, p. 251.

14. Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, 46, 10-12, (ed. C. de Boor), Lipsiae, 1883, p. 434 ; Nicephorus archiepiscopus Constantinopolitanae, Breviarum, 14, 20-22, in Nicephorus archiepiscopus Constantinopolitanae, Opuscula historica, (ed. C. de Boor), Lipsiae, 1883, p. 123.

15. Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, 45, 22, (ed. C. de Boor) Lipsiae, 1883, p. 433.

16. Бешевлиев, В., Първобългарски надписи, София, 1992, n. 29, p. 159.

17. Бешевлиев, В., ‘Три приноса към българската средновеквона история. 1. За българо-византийските мирни договори през VІІІ в. 2. За За източната граница на България в края на ІХ в. 3. Надписите върху месемврийската икона Богородица Умиление’, in Изследвания в чест на проф. Марин Дринов. София, 1960, pps. 292-293.

18. Iordanov, I., ‘Mesembria (VI-XII c.), according to sphragistic data’, pps. 46-47.

19. Theophanes continuatus, Chronographia, 30, 6, 21, in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, 33, (ed. I. Bekker), Bonn, 1838, p. 412.

20. TIB 6, p. 355;   Notitia episcopatum, Notitia, n. 5, n. 8, in Hieroclis Synecdemus et Notitiae graecae episcopatum, (ed. G. Parthey), Berolini, 1866, p, 33; Notitia episcopatum temporae Ioannis Tzimiscis Scripta, II, 44, (ed. H. Gelzer), in ‘Underdruckte und wenig bekannte Bistümerverzeichnisse der orientalischen Kirche’, in Byzantinische Zeitschrift, II, 1893, pp. 26-78; Asdracha, C., ‘La Thrace orientale et la Mer Noire : géographie ecclesiastique et prosopographie (VIIIe-XIIe s.)’, in Géographie historique du monde méditerranéen, Paris, 1988, pps. 243-244. According to V. Gyzelev in the 70s of the 12th century, see. Гюзелев, В., 'Несебър', p. 336.

21. Iordanov, I., ‘Mesembria (VI-XII c.), according to sphragistic data’, pps. 50-51.

22. Ioannes Scylitzes Continuatus, p. 185

23. Гюзелев, В., ‘Несебър’, in Български средновековни градове и крепости, І, Градове и крепости по Дунав и Черно море, София, 1981, рр. 325-355.

24. Сказание на Пророк Исайя как бе възнесен от ангел до Седмото Небе, (ed. В. Тъпкова-Заимова, А. Милтенова), in Историко-апокалиптичната книжнина във Византия и в средновековна България, София, 1996, р. 202.

25. Гюзелев, В., ‘Несебър’, р. 335.

26. This additional information about Theodore Dobromiros has been provided by several finds of lead seals from Preslav, Anchilaos and Constantinople (Iordanov, I., ‘Mesembria (VI-XII c.), according to sphragistic data’, pps. 55-56).

27. Guido, Geographica, in Itineraria Romana, II, (ed. J. Schnetz), Lipsiae, 1940, pps. 135-136.

28. Пападопулу-Керамевс, А. И., Noctes Petropolitanae (Сборник византийских текстов ХІІ-ХІІІ веков), Санкт Петербург, 1913, pps. 1-87; Гюзелев, В., ‘Несебър’, р. 335.

29. Nicetas Choniates, Historia, in Corpus Scriptorium Historiae Byzantinae, VІ, (ed. Im. Bekker), Bonnae, 1835, p. 561, 10-11; Georgios Acropolites, Opera, 1, (ed. A. Heisenberg), Lipsae, 1903, p. 19, 3-5.

30. Nicetas Choniates, Historia, (ed. Im. Bekker), Bonnae, 1835, p. 645-646.

31. Гаврилови, Анд., Свети Сава. Преглед живота и рада. Београд, 1900, pps. 196-208.

32. Гюзелев, В., ‘Несебър’, р. 337.

33. Anonimi Veneti, 1, (ed. P. Riant), in Exuviae sacrae Constantinopolitanae, Genevieae, 1877, pps. 156-157.

34. Georgius Pachymeres, Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis libri tredecim, I-II, in Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, II, (ed. I. Bekkerus), Bonnae, 1835, p. 350, 10-11.

35. Georgius Pachymeres, Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis libri tredecim, I, p. 210, 8-9; Nicephorus Gregoras, Historia Byzantina, III, 2, Bonnae, 1829, p. 61.

36. Manuel Philes, Carmina, II, (edit. E. Miler), Parisis, 1854, p. 247.

37. Georgius Pachymeres, Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis libri tredecim, I, p. 343, 5-7.

38. Georgius Pachymeres, Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis libri tredecim, I, p. 348, 14 – 349, 13.

39. Georgius Pachymeres, Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis libri tredecim, I, p. 448, 14 -17.

40. Manuel Philes, Carmina, II, pps. 7, 119.

41. Tafel, G.L.F., G.M. Thomas Urkunden zur älteren Handels-und Staatsgeschichte der Republik Venedig mit besonderer Beziehung auf Byzanz und die Levante, III (1256-1299). Wien, 1857, pps. 238-239.

42. Tafel, G.L.F., G.M. Thomas Urkunden zur älteren Handels-und Staatsgeschichte der Republik Venedig mit besonderer Beziehung auf Byzanz und die Levante, III (1256-1299). pps. 244-245.

43. Actes des notaires génois de Péra et de Caffa de la fin du treizième siècle (1281-1290), (Publ. Par G.I. Brătianu), Bucarest, 1927, pps. 124-125.

44. Ioannes Cantacuzenus, Historiaraum libri IV, I-III, (ed. L. Schopeni), Bonnae, 1828-1832, I, 36, p. 172.

45. Попруженко, Г., Синодик царя Борила, София, 1928, pps. 92-93.

46. Acta Urbani IV, Clementi IV, Gregorii N (1269-1276), (ed. A. Tăutu), Rome, 1953, pps. 124-127.

47. Georgius Pachymeres, Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis libri tredecim, II, 16, p. 445.

48. Ioannis Cantacuzeni, Historia, I, 17, (ed. L. Schopen), Bonnae, 1828, p. 458; Nicephorus Gregoras, Historia Byzantina, III, 2, Bonnae, 1829, p. 487.

49. Balard, M. ‘Apropos de la bataile de Bosphore : l’expédition génoise de Paganino Doria à Constantinople (1351-1352) ’, in Travaux et mémoires, IV, 1970, pps. 431-469.

50. Гюзелев, В., ‘Несебър’, р. 348.

51. Гюзелев, В., ‘Несебър’, р. 348.

52. Гюзелев, В., ‘Chronicon Mesembriae (Бележки върху историята на Българското Черноморие в периода 1366-1448 г.)’, in Годишник на Софийския университет – Исторически факултет, LXVI, 3, 1972-1973, pps. 154-159.

53. Гюзелев, В., ‘Несебър’, р. 343

54. Гюзелев, В., ‘Несебър’, р. 345

55. Мутафчиев, П., ‘Към историята на месемврийските манастири’, in Сборник в чест на проф. В. Н. Златарски, София, 1925, p. 166.

56. Гюзелев, В., ‘Chronicon Mesembriae (Бележки върху историята на Българското Черноморие в периода 1366-1448 г.)’, pps. 163-167.

57. Гюзелев, В., ‘Chronicon Mesembriae (Бележки върху историята на Българското Черноморие в периода 1366-1448 г.)’, pps. 173-176.

58. Гюзелев, В., ‘Chronicon Mesembriae (Бележки върху историята на Българското Черноморие в периода 1366-1448 г.)’, pps. 178-179.

59. Гюзелев, В., ‘Chronicon Mesembriae (Бележки върху историята на Българското Черноморие в периода 1366-1448 г.)’, pps. 183-187.

60. Гюзелев, В., ‘Несебър’, р. 353.

61. Гюзелев, В., ‘Несебър’, р. 354.