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Greek commerce and shipping at the north coast of the Black Sea

Author(s) : Charlafti Gelina (4/30/2008)
Translation : Nakas Ioannis

For citation: Charlafti Gelina, "Greek commerce and shipping at the north coast of the Black Sea",
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Black Sea
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=11532>

Ελληνική εμπορική δραστηριότητα και ναυτιλία στα βόρεια παράλια του Εύξεινου Πόντου (12/1/2008 v.1) Greek commerce and shipping at the north coast of the Black Sea (4/1/2009 v.1) 



Chian network
The network was comprised by the Greek merchants who were active commercialy in the Black Sea, in the Mediterranean and in Western Europe during the period 1830-1860. The most important merchants originated from the island of Chios and very often were connected with kinship ties. These merchants combined trade with shipping and their companies were characterised by discipline and cohesion. The most important families were those of Rodokanakis, Zizinias, Rallis, Dromokaitis, Petrokokkinos, Agelastos. The network's importance declined with the changes in Black Sea trade after the Crimean War (1853-1856), in connection with the technological changes in sea transport.

emancipation of the serfs in Russia in 1861
Sefdom was established In Russia from the 17th century. It constituted a legal, economic and social network of dependence of a large part of the agricultural population that cultivated areas of the Russian nobility. The feudal obligations of the Russian serfs towards the landowners can be limited to two basic categories: provision of work (barschina) and paying taxes (obrok). In 1861, the tzarist regime, as part of the attempt to modernize the state after the Crimean War, abolished serfdom, liberating 23,000,000 serfs. The now free peasants were obliged to financially compensate the landowners for a part of the land they bought off.

free port (porto franco)
Ιn international terms free ports or porti franchi were commercial ports where the payment of customs duties, mainly for transit trade's products or for cargo temporarily stored there, was abolished. Well-known free ports in the Mediterranean Sea were those of Trieste and Livorno and in Romania the ports of Galaţi, Sulina, Brăila and Costanţa.

Ionian network
The Ionian network was comprised by the Greek merchants, who were active commercially in the Black Sea (in Odessa and Nikolaiev, ports of the Azov Sea and Danube), Mediterranean and Western Europe during the period 1870-early 20th c. The most important merchants of the network originated from the Ionian islands and especially Cephalonia and Ithaka. The network’s members started their activity as sailing shipowners and they were later involved in trade. At the end of 19th c., they were involved in transportation of cargos of the same kind, especially grain and coal. The network’s members became important shipowners. The network’s most important personalities were Athanasoulis, Antypas brothers, Aravantinos, P. Vallianos, N.P. Vlassopoulos, Drakoulis brothers, Theofilatos and Stathatos, Theofilatos brothers, Kavvadias brothers, G. Kakoulatos, A. Kourkoumelis, Lykiardopouloi brothers, Melissaratou brothers etc.


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